Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a common chronic disorder that often requires lifelong care. This occurs when the muscles in the back of the throat fail to keep the airway open during sleep. A person may experiences apneas, hypopneas and flow limitation- repetitive episodes of obstruction of the upper airway during sleep.
- Apnea: a cessation of airflow for ≥ 10 seconds
- Hypopnea: a decrease in airflow lasting ≥ 10 seconds with a 30% oxygen reduction in airflow and with at least a 4% oxygen desaturation from baseline
- Flow limitation: narrowing of the upper airway and an indication of an impending upper airway closure
The prevalence of any OSA is estimated to be 33.9% in men and 17.4% in women – 25% on average
- 1 in 5 adults has mild OSA
- 75% of severe SDB cases remain undiagnosed
Signs and Symptoms of Sleep Apnea
- Irregular breathing during sleep (eg, snoring)
- Nighttime gasping, choking or coughing
- Unexplained daytime sleepiness
- Lack of energy
- Morning headaches
- Restless Sleep
- Erectile dysfunction
- Frequent nocturnal urination
- Depression or mood changes
- Unexplained weight gain
- Memory impairment
- Awakenings due to gasping or choking
- Sore throat or dry mouth
- Heavy night sweats
- Memory impairment
Untreated Sleep Apnea is a major independent risk factor contributing to:
- Cardiovascular disease
- Restless sleep
- Atrial Fibrillation
- Cognitive impairment
- Excessive Daytime sleepiness
- Motor vehicle accidents
- Increased mortality
Classification of Sleep Apnea
- Apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) – Number of apneas and/or hypopneas per hour of sleep
- Reflects the severity of Sleep Apnea
AHI = 0–5 Normal range
AHI = 5–15 Mild Sleep Apnea
AHI = 15–30 Moderate Sleep Apnea
AHI > 30 Severe Sleep Apnea
Increased risk factors for Sleep Apnea
Untreated OSA may increase the risk of high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, obesity, diabetes, heart failure and arrhythmias or irregular heartbeats.
What are the Options to Diagnose Sleep Apnea?
- Home Sleep Test (HST) devices, such as the WatchPAT
WatchPAT is an FDA cleared portable homes sleep test system that diagnose sleep related breathing disorders. It is a small wrist mounted device which allows testing to be done in the comfort of patient’s own home. WatchPAT uses the most innovative technology (PAT signal) to ensure the accurate screening, detection, and follow-up treatment of sleep apnea. It is easy to use, provides fast results in an immediate comprehensive automatic report.
The WatchPAT consistently demonstrates a high degree (up to 90%) of correlation as compared with PSG.
- Sleep lap – Polysomnography (PSG)
Polysomnography (PSG), cosidered the gold standard test, is used to diagnose a variety of sleep disorders or when further investigation is needed or in rare cases, such as central or mixed apnea is suspected.
PSG is performed at a sleep disorders center within a hospital or at an independent sleep centers.